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How To Stop Roof Tiles Being Blown Off
Roof valleys are a frequent source of leaks in older houses. Installation procedures differ depending on the roof type and materials used. We will look here at the basic installation of an open lead lined roof valley.
A roof valley is basically a gutter set between two meeting pitched roofs. Depending on the roof area it serves, the valley is the exit point for a large volume of water so extreme care should be taken with installation. If the roof has been leaking for a while or if there are any signs of rot, you will need to start by replacing the valley boards. Lead sheet is not self supporting and should be placed on treated roofing boards of sufficient strength to hold a large person. (Most roofing contractors are big guys!) Fit boards of sufficient width to accommodate the lead plus 100mm either side. This will give you something to nail the roofing batons to.
The top of the valley boards should be at the same level as the top of the roof rafters. If you lay the boards directly on top of the rafters it may cause the roofing tiles to kick up and restrict water run off. You will need to cut the valley boards to fit in between the rafters. Support the valley boards with studs or noggins. The valley should finish on an even plane at the eaves. It should not kick up higher than the bottom rafters. If it does, you will need to cut the fascia board or adjust the gutter to suit. It is a good idea to fit a tilting fillet each side of the valley. This angled strip of wood runs along the valley length and should be a minimum of 150mm from the centre of the valley. It should sit no higher than the roofing batons with the thinnest end closest to the centre of the valley.
It is common practice to fit a single sheet of roofing underlay the entire length of the valley. The adjacent roofing underlay will rest on top of this sheet. I recommend you use one of the new advanced synthetic underlay materials. The older bitumen based felts are fine for normal roofing situations but are not suitable for valleys. Over time the bitumen will bond the lead to the boards and restrict thermal movement. You should ensure you buy lead of a sufficient grade/code for valley applications. This should be between 1.80mm and 2.24mm thickness. If you are unsure ask your roofing merchant of the correct grade. The lead should be cut into sections no larger than 1.5 meters in length to allow sufficient thermal movement. Bend a welt into the lead 25mm each side. This acts as a last line of defence for water penetration. It also has the added benefit of stiffening the lead, which makes carrying it up the roof a lot easier.
Starting at the bottom of the valley, dress the lead neatly onto the valley boards and over the tilting fillets. The bottom of the lead should allow correct drainage into the gutter. Fix two rows of nails at the very top of the flashing. Use copper or stainless steel nails. Never use galvanised or aluminum nails which will just react with the lead and corrode. I recommend you use the minimum amount of fixing possible to hold the lead in place. If you over fix lead sheeting it will eventually split due to thermal movement. So don't nail the sides. When you have successfully dressed the first sheet you can move up the roof laying subsequent sheets. Overlap each sheet a minimum of 150mm. On lower pitched roof valleys you will need to increase the lap. Where the valley ends at the ridge, you will need to dress the lead so it can sit neatly under the ridge tiles. You are now ready to start fixing the batons and laying the roofing tiles. The key points to remember are to keep the sheet lengths down to 1.5 meters and don't over fix. If you follow the procedure outlined and take care with the dressing you will produce a durable maintenance free valley.
Roofing - A Guide To Installing Corrugated Iron Roofing
Back in 1989 when I installed my first asphalt shingle there was many changes in the roofing manufacture sector. The end result was down-sizing the weight to accommodate a more flexible shingle. The old shingles in the USA were known as Asphalt roofing shingles or a standard strip 3-tab shingles. At that time there were other shingles on the market known as Standard strip asphalt composition shingles or Architectural shingles called Timberline or heavy weight shingles known as random tab, and three tabs or standard were becoming composition shingles.
The older organic shingles were just simply called asphalt shingles made with number five crude oil with the advent of the fiberglass standard strip composition shingle was born. Owens Corning helped innovate this process. Since they are the largest fiberglass manufacture in America today.
Many of the other shingles manufactures by fiberglass mats from Owens Corning. This was told to me directly from Owens Corning as a result of a factory tour on the anatomy of the shingle required by Owens Corning Certification. Most of the old asphalt shingles have been torn off and they are in land fills now in the US.
The new fiberglass composition shingles are the norm in today's society. I know this because I am a Professional Contractor, not somebody hoping I am right in marketing, although marketing takes precedence more than any other thing for any business model.
Referrals are Always the Best just to let you know my feelings on the subject. I have personally installed many shingles in my life and I have always know the newer shingle to be considered composition because of the composite make up of the materials that have been blended by the various manufacturers today in the US.
If you find true asphalt shingles today chances are they manufactured in a third world country where the resources are limited, the standard strip shingle was the first of this innovation followed by a multitude of several shingle brands. Any and all fiberglass shingles are considered composition shingles by most roofing professionals.
These composition asphalt shingles have fire ratings, wind resistance warranties and failure warranty's based on the fiber glass mat and asphalt fiberglass thickness, granules and algae resistant ratios. The asphalt composition shingle is made to last longer than the old asphalt shingles not to put more weight than the asphalt roof structure can hold according to ICC specification on weight load limitations of roof framing and spans. The asphalt composition is lighter, more flexible and durable than the old asphalt shingle in1989 and previous years.
GAF Elk happens to be largest asphalt roofing manufacturer in the USA and has any brands in the asphalt roofing shingle world. Owens Corning and CertainTeed have a multitude of designer, architectural and standard strip roofing products. The same can hold true with Atlas and Tamco of which all manufacture asphalt composition roofing shingles in the United States today.
GAF/Elk carries the strongest warranties on their roofing materials for their Certified and Master Elite Roofing Contractors. I welcome any and all comments from CARE (Center for Advancement for Roofing Excellence) and the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association of America (ARMA)as well as any National Roofing Contractors Association of America (NRCA), members of affiliates to correct my definition on the difference between asphalt roofing shingles and asphalt composition roofing shingles.
There are roofing shingles that I have seen come and go, such as the masonite shingle, which is a composite material that requires flashing between each joint to seal it off. There are also concrete tiles which I would consider composite since it does not have the slate or clay tile attributes, known as concrete tiles. There is also another material called Mira Vista of which was a fake slate the Owens Corning made that would fall under the composite material that was made of a plastic or a plasticiser type composite material.
At any rate it is up to you to decide what type of roof you would like to put on your home. Every shingle manufacturer in the USA is an asphalt composition roofing shingle. All Asphalt fiberglass composition shingles come with a 20 year to lifetime warranty and anything in between.
Roofing is one of the most important investments you can make. Improper, aged or substandard roofing can lead to a host of other more expensive problems. If you are selling your property, a well-chosen roof can yield a solid return on your investment. Whatever your budget or design desires, whether you want architectural shingles, tile roof installation or something in between, a Roof Master consultant will work with you to make it a reality.
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