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Roofing: A Guide to Lead Valley Installation
Springtime storms can bring a lot of rain, which can reveal roof leaks. What should you do when an April shower finds its way into your living room?
First, control the interior damage as quickly as possible.
Move any items that have not yet become soaked. If furniture or other items cannot be moved, cover them with plastic sheets to protect them from the water. Collect dripping water in a leak proof container and make sure the container is on a solid surface.
Remove the water.
Begin to dry up water that has soaked into carpet and furniture. For carpeting that has become wet, you may need to pull the carpet away from the padding. Expose the backing to air and allow it to dry. This will also give the padding underneath a chance to dry, and reduce the chance that mold will grow. Circulate as much fresh air as possible around the affected areas.
Call your insurance agent.
If your living space has sustained a considerable amount of damage, call your insurance agent. Your policy may or may not cover damage to the interior from a roof leak. Do not wait to call the agent. They can usually inspect the damage within hours of your call and help you get started on the process of cleaning up or replacing your damaged contents.
Inspect the roof, inside and out.
As soon as possible, check the roof for obvious sources of standing or pooling water. Make sure the valleys, gutters and downspouts are clear of debris and allow the water to move freely off the roof and away from the house. Inspect the roofing materials. Make sure all parts of the underlying roof are covered with shingles, and that the water barrier is not exposed in any way. Keep in mind that the water's point of entry into the living space may not be directly below the roof leak. Roof leaks can "travel" so inspect the entire region of the leak carefully. You may also find it useful to inspect the roof from the attic space above the living quarters. That may provide a better indication of how the water is entering the structure.
Clear the gutters and downspouts.
Remove any obvious blockages and clear the downspouts if they are clogged. You can often do this with a garden hose. If the downspout is clogged, and it cannot be cleared with a hose, you may have to remove the downspout from the gutter and clear it by inverting the downspout or using a broom handle or other long object to push the debris out of the pipe. When it is clear, reattach it to the gutter and direct the water away from the foundation.
Inspect the flashing.
Some roof leaks are not the result of clogged gutters or downspouts. Instead, leaks occur where the roofing material is worn or damaged. In other cases, the flashing around chimneys, vents, or roof projections is damaged and allows water into the structure below. Inspect the flashing, where chimneys, dormers, vents and other attachments abut the roof. If the flashing is in poor condition, it may need to be replaced. If the sealing around the flashing is damaged, a generous application of roof tar may plug the leak.
Look for hidden damage.
Roof leaks often develop over time, so water may collect unnoticed for some time before it enters the living space. When you inspect the attic, check for any hidden damage that the leak may have caused. Look for wet spots on the roof planks or panels, discolored wood, damaged OSB panels, strange odors and dirt on the insulation. Check the interior for bulges in the ceilings and walls, peeling paint, and badly cracked plaster or wallboard. All of these are signs that something may not be right in your attic or walls.
Check for pests.
Ants and other water-loving pests will find wet wood a very attractive place to build a nest. If you experience a sudden invasion of ants, powder post beetles, pill bugs, sow bugs, earwigs or other water-loving pests, immediately look for wet wood. An exterminator can rid your house of these pests, but the only way to make sure they stay away is to remove the wet wood and remediate the problem.
Call a licensed roofing contractor.
If your inspection reveals a lot of water damage, or an old roof that simply needs replacement, and if you aren't up to replacing it yourself, call a licensed roofing contractor to repair or replace your roof. Simply re-shingling the roof will not repair most roof leaks. If the roof is leaking, the most likely cause is a breakdown of the waterproofing layer underneath the shingles. In that case, all old shingles should be torn off, and the water proofing layer, along with the shingles, should be replaced.
Re-roofing can be expensive, so be sure to get several estimates from different contractors before selecting someone to do the work. Verify that the contractor you choose is licensed, has insurance and will apply for the proper municipal permits to do the work. Do not allow the contractor to begin work on the house if permits have not been issued and make sure the contractor replaces all of the damaged wood prior to re-roofing the house. After the roof work is complete, ask the contractor to go over proper roof maintenance with you, and be sure to get a final inspection from your municipal housing authority.
Roofing: A Guide to Lead Valley Installation
Roof valleys are a frequent source of leaks in older houses. Installation procedures differ depending on the roof type and materials used. We will look here at the basic installation of an open lead lined roof valley.
A roof valley is basically a gutter set between two meeting pitched roofs. Depending on the roof area it serves, the valley is the exit point for a large volume of water so extreme care should be taken with installation. If the roof has been leaking for a while or if there are any signs of rot, you will need to start by replacing the valley boards. Lead sheet is not self supporting and should be placed on treated roofing boards of sufficient strength to hold a large person. (Most roofing contractors are big guys!) Fit boards of sufficient width to accommodate the lead plus 100mm either side. This will give you something to nail the roofing batons to.
The top of the valley boards should be at the same level as the top of the roof rafters. If you lay the boards directly on top of the rafters it may cause the roofing tiles to kick up and restrict water run off. You will need to cut the valley boards to fit in between the rafters. Support the valley boards with studs or noggins. The valley should finish on an even plane at the eaves. It should not kick up higher than the bottom rafters. If it does, you will need to cut the fascia board or adjust the gutter to suit. It is a good idea to fit a tilting fillet each side of the valley. This angled strip of wood runs along the valley length and should be a minimum of 150mm from the centre of the valley. It should sit no higher than the roofing batons with the thinnest end closest to the centre of the valley.
It is common practice to fit a single sheet of roofing underlay the entire length of the valley. The adjacent roofing underlay will rest on top of this sheet. I recommend you use one of the new advanced synthetic underlay materials. The older bitumen based felts are fine for normal roofing situations but are not suitable for valleys. Over time the bitumen will bond the lead to the boards and restrict thermal movement. You should ensure you buy lead of a sufficient grade/code for valley applications. This should be between 1.80mm and 2.24mm thickness. If you are unsure ask your roofing merchant of the correct grade. The lead should be cut into sections no larger than 1.5 meters in length to allow sufficient thermal movement. Bend a welt into the lead 25mm each side. This acts as a last line of defence for water penetration. It also has the added benefit of stiffening the lead, which makes carrying it up the roof a lot easier.
Starting at the bottom of the valley, dress the lead neatly onto the valley boards and over the tilting fillets. The bottom of the lead should allow correct drainage into the gutter. Fix two rows of nails at the very top of the flashing. Use copper or stainless steel nails. Never use galvanised or aluminum nails which will just react with the lead and corrode. I recommend you use the minimum amount of fixing possible to hold the lead in place. If you over fix lead sheeting it will eventually split due to thermal movement. So don't nail the sides. When you have successfully dressed the first sheet you can move up the roof laying subsequent sheets. Overlap each sheet a minimum of 150mm. On lower pitched roof valleys you will need to increase the lap. Where the valley ends at the ridge, you will need to dress the lead so it can sit neatly under the ridge tiles. You are now ready to start fixing the batons and laying the roofing tiles. The key points to remember are to keep the sheet lengths down to 1.5 meters and don't over fix. If you follow the procedure outlined and take care with the dressing you will produce a durable maintenance free valley.
Roofing is one of the most important investments you can make. Improper, aged or substandard roofing can lead to a host of other more expensive problems. If you are selling your property, a well-chosen roof can yield a solid return on your investment. Whatever your budget or design desires, whether you want architectural shingles, tile roof installation or something in between, a Roof Master consultant will work with you to make it a reality.
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